Tuesday, January 26, 2016
This word has become synonymous with the terrible catastrophe that caused the great sacrifices. Dealt a heavy blow to Ukraine, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Chernobyl – a small town located on the shore of the Kiev reservoir, between the rivers too Pripyat, a city surrounded by green forests. Summer came here to rest a lot of people because the place was very colorful. Not so long ago on the Pripyat River built a town and named it the Pripyat. It was the garden city! Beautiful boulevards and lots of greenery make it an enjoyable vacation spot.
In 1972, right near Chornobyl have begun to build the most powerful in the Soviet nuclear power plant. By 1985, four units have completed construction and began to build the fifth. Night April 26, 1986 does not bode ill. NPP conducted an experiment on load capacity. But what an experiment! Was shut down the entire system of protecting power, and he moved to the unmanaged state. Operators attempted to stabilize the situation, but it was too late. And then, at exactly 1 hour 24 minutes the night were heard two explosions at 4 reactor, and it started to burn.
Within five minutes the firefighters were in place. By morning they were able to localize the fire and extinguish it. But the worst was yet to come. The fourth reactor was completely destroyed throughout the plant were scattered pieces of uranium and graphite, emitting radiation. But the city continued to live my life for two more days. No one warned the residents of the disaster. Hundreds of thousands of people walked the streets, went on nature. In Kiev, were cycling competition. The days were hot, many people have decided to conduct them out of town. And no one felt that the green grass and trees have become their enemies. Some people have received such doses that some time later died.
28 April 1100 a convoy of buses exported from Pripyat, Chernobyl and other localities of the exclusion zone residents. They were allowed to take only identity documents and some food. All the rest of the property was abandoned. And so the first few days after the accident, flat with all property, goods shops were scored for looters paradise. Police with great difficulty managed to prevent theft of property. Living in a radius of 30 km from Chernobyl stopped, only occasionally there appeared thrillseekers.
Meanwhile, at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant operation was in full swing. It was necessary after the reactor is burnt out, to reset all the fragments of uranium and graphite from the roof and collect them in all areas. But first – a few words about the device reactor.
The reactor is a huge pit filled with graphite. The walls, floor and roof of the reactor are made of lead (Lead – virtually the only substance that does not transmit radiation). In graphite are holes in which are embedded rods of uranium fuel. Thanks to a nuclear reaction is allocated a huge amount of heat. (A piece of uranium the size of the palm has more energy than a train of coal. In addition, nuclear power plants, unlike thermal power plants, atmospheric oxygen does not burn and does not pollute the atmosphere). Heat is supplied to steam turbines, which generate a current. The turbines are located in the building of a reactor. Top of the reactor lid is closed. Force of the explosion that knocked the cover and all inside the top of the burn.
In the early days of the reactor could not come, because the temperature there reaches 5,000 degrees. At this time the plant was hanging over a radioactive cloud which carries the wind. Cloud three times circled the globe, resulting in a lot of radiation spread across Europe. Most, of course, went to Ukraine and Belarus.
Meanwhile, the liquidators were trying somehow to drive the cloud to the ground. The helicopter bombed a reactor with sand, watered with water. But it was very inefficient, and the air was 77 kg of radiation. And this is equivalent to both the plant dropped to a hundred (!) Of the atomic bombs, and at the same time.
When the reactor is burnt out, it was necessary to collect all the fragments of uranium and graphite. All work was done manually. Liquidators in masks and costumes of lead shoveling shovels and hand selected pieces of radioactive material, dumped them in a burned-out reactor. After the cleanup work began on the construction of the sarcophagus over reactor (large box) in order to prevent radiation leaks. Now being developed and implemented the project “Shelter” on which the fourth reactor fully descended into the earth, and he will forever cease to be a headache.
After the Chernobyl accident, many argued for its closure. In December 2000 it was closed due to outdated and imperfect security system.